This study of residential and transport sectoral energy use in India is part of a larger effort at LBNL to provide analysis of energy use patterns at the level of sub-sectors and end uses for all sectors. There are two motivations for this effort. First, as the negative environmental impacts (both local and global) of energy consumption become more urgent, there is a need to evaluate current and future sources of energy-related effects at a greater level of accuracy and detail. Secondly, a disaggregated analysis is highly desirable in order to guide mitigation efforts, including policies towards increased efficiency.LBNL has a long history in the investigation of energy use patterns in developing countries, particularly in China. Most recently, these efforts have focused on end-use level analysis of historical and projected energy consumption in all Chinese energy sectors (Zhou, 2007). India seems poised to be the next emerging giant, in both economic and energetic terms. This report focusing on two key sectors will constitute one of the first in a series of steps on the details of recent trends in order to inform the development of effective policies to address the negative impacts of energy demand growth. This report looks at energy used at the end use level over the period 1990 to 2005 and develops a baseline scenario to 2020. End-use sector-level information regarding adoption of particular technologies was used as a key input in the bottom-up modeling approach.