Urbanization in China increased in speed in the last 30 years. By the end of 2011, China had a total urban population of 691 million or 51.2% of the total population, rising from 26% in 1990. It is predicted that nearly 70% of the population will live in urban areas by 2035. In this talk, Professor Jiang will present a few case studies on urban energy planning for Chinese cities, with the focus on district heating systems. Questions and challenges in urban energy research will be raised and potential solutions will be discussed.