All member states in the European community have to implement the directive on the liberalization of the electric energy market. Although this directive was issued in 1996, the speed by which this process takes place in the different countries is far from being the same. This seminar gives an overview of the present situation on liberalization in the different countries. This is linked to the technical layout of the European grid, leading to the discussion of congestion in the grid. The impact of the introduction of renewable sources in the market is treated. The problems regarding back-up power are discussed. From this discussion, the required investments for the European grid are found, as they are proposed by the European commission. After this rather bird-eye view on liberalization, two more local issues on energy use are discussed. One of the large consumers of electrical energy is high speed railway and freight transport. The technical developments with regard to supply and links with the liberalized electricity market will be discussed. As a last point, the possibilities and problems with grid integrated photovoltaic systems will be discussed.