|Title||Participation through Automation: Fully Automated Critical Peak Pricing in Commercial Buildings|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|LBNL Report Number||LBNL-60614|
|Year of Publication||2006|
|Authors||Piette, Mary Ann, David S. Watson, Naoya Motegi, Sila Kiliccote, and Eric Linkugel|
|Conference Name||2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings|
|Conference Location||Pacific Grove, CA|
California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak prices (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a tariff design to promote demand response. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows. Manual Demand Response involves a potentially labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. We refer to this as Auto-DR.
This paper describes the development, testing, and results from automated CPP (Auto-CPP) as part of a utility project in California. The paper presents the project description and test methodology. This is followed by a discussion of Auto-DR strategies used in the field test buildings. We present a sample Auto-CPP load shape case study, and a selection of the Auto-CPP response data from September 29, 2005. If all twelve sites reached their maximum saving simultaneously, a total of approximately 2 MW of DR is available from these twelve sites that represent about two million ft2. The average DR was about half that value, at about 1 MW. These savings translate to about 0.5 to 1.0 W/ft2 of demand reduction. We are continuing field demonstrations and economic evaluations to pursue increasing penetrations of automated DR that has demonstrated ability to provide a valuable DR resource for California.