|Title||Time-resolved molecular dynamics of bacteriophage HK97 capsid maturation interpreted by electron cryo-microscopy and X-ray crystallography|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2006|
|Authors||Wikoff, William R., James F. Conway, Jinghua Tang, Kelly K. Lee, Lu Gan, Naiqian Cheng, Robert L. Duda, Roger W. Hendrix, Alasdair C. Steven, and John E. Johnson|
|Secondary Title||Journal of Structural Biology|
|Keywords||capsid expansion, conformational change, cryo-electron microscopy, hk97 bacteriophage, molecular machine, molecular movie, x-ray crystallography|
The bacteriophage HK97 capsid is a molecular machine that exhibits large-scale conformational rearrangements of its 420 identical protein subunits during capsid maturation. Immature empty capsids, termed Prohead II, assemble in vivo in an Escherichia coli expression system. Maturation of these particles may be induced in vitro, converting them into Head II capsids that are indistinguishable in conformation from the capsid of an infectious phage particle. One method of in vitro maturation requires acidification to drive the reaction through two expansion intermediates (EI-I, EI-II) to its penultimate particle state (EI-III), which has 86% more internal volume than Prohead II. Neutralization of EI-III produces the fully mature capsid, Head II. The three expansion intermediates and the acid expansion pathway were characterized by cryo-EM analysis and 3D reconstruction. We now report that, although large-scale structural changes are involved, the electron density maps for these intermediate states are readily interpreted in terms of quasi-atomic models based on subunit structures determined by prior crystallographic analysis of Head II. Progression through the expansion intermediate states primarily represents rigid-body rotations and translations of the subunits, accompanied by refolding of two small regions, the N-terminal arm and a [beta]-hairpin called the E-loop. Movies made with these pseudo-atomic coordinates and the Head II X-ray coordinates illuminate various aspects of the maturation pathway in the course of which the pattern of inter-subunit interactions is sequentially transformed while the integrity of the capsid is maintained.
1047-8477doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.jsb.2005.11.009