|Title||Transmission Grid Access and Pricing in Norway, Spain, and California: A Comparative Study|
|Year of Publication||1999|
|Authors||Grønli, Helle, Tomás Gómez, and Chris Marnay|
|Keywords||consortium for electric reliability technology solutions (certs), energy analysis and environmental impacts department|
The openness of the transmission grid and the incentives given by transmission pricing form the foundation for retail and wholesale competition in the electricity market. The deregulated markets of Norway, Spain, and California all have introduced retail access and wholesale competition, although with different approaches to pricing of transmission grid services. This paper will briefly describe the three different solutions, and discuss some of their implications.