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OpenADR Specification to Ease Building Power Reductions

In collaboration with colleagues at other universities and in the private sector, researchers at the Environmental Energy Technologies Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have developed a new data model that will help facilities and buildings save power through automated demand response technology and advanced "Smart Grid" development.

From left: Sila Kiliccote, Girish Ghatikar, and Mary Ann Piette

From left: Sila Kiliccote, Girish Ghatikar, and Mary Ann Piette.

The researchers who developed OpenADR (Open Automated Demand Response) are part of the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is funded by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The DRRC's goal is to develop technologies to make it possible for buildings and facilities to adopt demand response as a way of saving peak power use and reducing stress on the electric grid during times of high energy demand.

"The purpose of this specification is to help building and facilities managers implement automated demand response in their facilities, as well as assist electric utilities to help their commercial and industrial customers participate in power pricing programs that incorporate automated demand response," said Mary Ann Piette, Deputy Head of the Building Technologies Department and DRRC Research Director.

"OpenADR also helps manufacturers of building automation equipment design products for Smart Grid implementation and power aggregators incorporate demand response into their work. OpenADR builds on six years of research in California to develop autoDR technology and demonstrate it in buildings with our utility and commercial partners."

With widespread interest nationally in turning the electric grid into a more responsive "Smart Grid," the new OpenADR specification will help more facilities adopt autoDR—and help building automation companies develop products for it—by providing a common, open specification that everyone can use as a reference.

What is DR and AutoDR?

Demand response, DR, is a central part of the so-called "Smart Grid." DR is the process of managing energy use dynamically through cooperation between power customers, their electric utility, and the electric system's operator (the independent system operator, or ISO). When the electrical grid is near capacity—for example, when too many air conditioners start laboring on a hot summer's day—the ISO informs electric utilities and power consumers that there's a problem in the offing, and demand is reduced.

Aggregate Customer Loads for the Automated Critical Peak Pricing Event on 7/9/2008; Fully Automated Demand Response Reduce Peak Demand by 2.2 MW; x-axis: 1 hour increments starting at 12:00 AM; y-axis: Power (kW), 0 - 20000.

Tests of automated demand response in commercial buildings throughout California show significant reductions in peak electricity load. The white area under the baseline curve represents the amount of power not used because of automated demand response. These tests are being conducted as part of a multi-year testing program funded by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research program. This graph includes data from 28 sites around California.

AutoDR enhances the solution. Shutting building systems down by hand can help reduce electric demand; however, manual interventions are not always reliable, consistent, or persistent. AutoDR provides an automated alternative that increases DR effectiveness. Significant reductions in peak electricity load are being revealed in studies conducted as part of a multi-year, PIER-funded testing program of automated demand response in commercial buildings throughout California.

AutoDR is the technology and communications platform developed by the DRRC, which was launched by the PIER program at Berkeley Lab in 2003 to support all forms of demand response. Under Piette's direction, the center manages a portfolio of research projects that address pricing, valuation, behavior, building dynamics, and technology development.

Features of OpenADR

"The OpenADR specification uses open, non-proprietary, industry-approved data models—any interested party can develop products around it. Its communications interfaces and protocols are flexible, platform-independent, interoperable, and transparent to end-to-end technologies and software systems," says Piette.

An open specification encourages innovation and interoperability. It also allows system designers to build on existing controls and communications strategies used within their facilities to reduce technology operation and maintenance costs, stranded assets, and obsolesce in technology.

System designers can integrate their facility's energy management and control systems (EMCS), centralized lighting, and other end-use devices that can receive a relay or internet signals using, for example, eXtensible Markup Language (XML).

The specification includes provisions for including opt-out or override functions through a web portal. Research on facility managers' preferences suggest that providing manual control over automatic, pre-programmed changes in building energy use is an essential feature for facility managers interested in joining utility demand response programs.

The OpenADR specification was developed by: Mary Ann Piette, Girish Ghatikar, and Sila Kiliccote (the Demand Response Research Center at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Ed Koch and Dan Hennage (Akuacom), Peter Palensky (University of Pretoria), David Holmberg (National Institute of Standards and Technology), Dave Robin (Automated Logic Controls), Jim Butler (Cimetrics), and Charles McParland (Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

— Allan Chen

For more information, contact:

  • Mary Ann Piette
  • (510) 486-6286

This research was sponsored by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program.

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