Emission inventories are important research and regulatory tools which link energy-use and technology adoption to changes in emissions. Knowledge of emissions of a suite of pollutants is required for prioritizing sectoral mitigation based on multiple criteria, i.e., impact on clean air and climate. Assessments indicate that a large model-measurement disagreement occurs in South Asia, for species like black carbon, implying a low bias in estimated emission magnitudes. These could result from missing sources and/or region-specific differences in emission factors. In this context, I will present ongoing work on development of a new emissions inventory for India for a recent base year of 2010. Sectoral emission calculations are made at a highest possible level of disaggregation, with a split of fuel use into activities and technology divisions, a separate treatment of high-emitting technologies and the use of measured emission factors, where available. Emissions from activities of regional importance, like residential cooking and lighting, brick production and agricultural practices are treated in detail. I will present emissions of chemical species of importance to clean air and climate, including particle matter (PM2.5, black carbon, organic carbon), sulphur dioxide, ozone precursors (NOx, CO, NMVOCs) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). High-emitting activities and technologies will be identified. Frameworks for assessing mitigation will be discussed.