Measurement and verification (M&V) is the process of using measurements to reliably determine actual saving created within an individual facility by an energy management program. This talk will describe the basics of M&V, and introduce how M&V is conducted in the Republic of South Africa. Topics covered include the history of M&V in South Africa, the business structure, and the Eskom-led M&V protocols and guidelines of M&V. The talk will also present how the M&V profession is governed and regulated by the national professional body, the national standard (the first in the world), and a national accreditation system of energy efficiency measurement and verification. Lastly, the talk will highlight the research and postgraduate student training in relation to M&V -- an fast evolving field where you find new research opportunities with applications of mathematics, control systems, power engineering and environmental psychology.