The Earth's climate system presents an array of complex scientific challenges that range from unresolved gaps in knowledge to uncertainties in the understanding of the past, present, and future changes in the system. Additionally, there are demands to advance the frontiers of climate modeling and science arising from the needs of several sectors to obtain trusted information on Earth's climate. These needs include information about regional and local climate, robust explanations of observed phenomena, quantified trends in key climate variables, and determining the predictability of the climate system from the seasonal to the centennial timescales, including extremes. The consequences of a growing world population, the associated energy demands and accompanying societal concerns regarding atmospheric composition, pollution, and climate make it necessary that climate modeling provide a credible scientific underpinning for understanding past climate changes and enabling reliable predictions. In this talk, we will explore central aspects of the climate challenges and examine the prospects offered by recent developments in climate modeling research and applications
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