Treatment of human disease was transformed with the development of powered implantable devices. The first powered implantable device in widespread use was the cardiac pacemaker. Since the first implants, a diverse set of implantable medical devices has been developed to treat a broad spectrum of disease states. The devices including pacemakers, neurostimulators, drug pumps, implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), and heart assist/replacement devices will be discussed. The power sources used in the devices vary, but there are general requirements that remain constant for all the cells, including: safety, reliability, low weight/small size, predictability of performance, low self discharge and end-of-life indication. These parameters along with key device performance factors will be discussed.
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