Nigel Isaacs is science leader for the Building Energy End-use Study (BEES) which over six years will explore energy and water use in non-domestic buildings in New Zealand. BEES is supported by the Foundation for Research Science and Technology, the Department of Building and Housing, Building Research and the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority. BEES will measure actual end uses in approximately 100 buildings through direct monitoring. A further 400+ buildings will be energy audited to supplement this information. Nigel was science leader for the now completed HEEP study which monitored all fuels (electricity, natural gas, LPG, wood, coal, oil, etc) and energy services (room temperatures, hot water, appliances, etc) for a full year each in 400 randomly selected houses throughout New Zealand - large and small cities, urban and rural, North and South Islands from Kaikohe to Invercargill. This unique research provided new knowledge on energy end uses in New Zealand houses. Highlights included verification of that well-to-do and poor New Zealand households have very similar concepts of winter 'warmth'; actual measurement of many of those energy vampires in houses; and quantification of the role of wood as a heating fuel in New Zealand. This presentation will outline the non-domestic building research plan and pose the types of research question that the HEEP study has taught us might be learned from direct measurement of end uses.