Just over a decade since the fall of communism, Central and Eastern European countries are facing the legacies of a planned economy in working toward a future of sustainable energy. The high-energy intensities characteristic of these countries is at the core of their currently unsustainable energy practices. On the one hand, radical restructuring post-communism presents a grand opportunity for leap-frogging over Western paths of development. On the other, historical market factors such as lack of competition, subsidized energy prices, and dominance of heavy industry, in addition to insufficient data and expertise, are challenges that stand in the way of a transition to a more-sustainable energy economy. This talk outlines the current energy landscape of CEE countries, discusses both positive and negative legacies that their centrally planned economies present, and proposes a policy agenda dedicated to promoting sustainable energy transitions therein.